What Is Copmputer Hardware: Everything You Need To Know

Computer hardware refers to the physical components of a computer system. Moreover, hardware refers to various electronic, electrical, and mechanical parts of a computer system. Computer hardware is composed of two types of parts. Most hardware components are located within the computer case, while some peripheral devices connect to the computer externally. 

Here you’ll learn about computer hardware, the major computer components, their functioning, and other key technical details that computer science students should know.


What is Computer Hardware?


As the name implies, computer hardware is the actual hardware of the computer. The hardware of a computer is made up of expected results such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, hard drive (HDD), graphics cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard, etc. Even though both hardware and software must work together for the system to function, the speed of a computer is mainly determined by its hardware. However, software consists of a collection of instructions that hardware can store and execute.


Types of Computer Hardware 


It might result from an internal or external connection to the computer, depending on where the hardware component of the computer is located. A computer’s hardware is separated into two types. They are as follows:

The Internal Hardware Components

Internal hardware components are located and connected inside a computer’s casing. For example:

  • System Case 
  • Motherboard
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Graphics card
  • CD DVD drive
  • Sound card
  • Power Supply Unit
  • Connections cable
  • Ram Modules 
  • Optical drive
  • Solid-state drive
  • Processor heat sink
  • Internal hard disk 


The External Hardware Components

External hardware components are connected to the computer from outside of the computer. These externally linked components are also known as peripheral hardware devices. Connecting these devices to the system is done using a variety of cables. Here are several examples:

  • Display Monitor 
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  •  Projector 
  • Camera 
  • Scanner
  • External Hard Disk
  • Headphones
  • Speaker
  • Printer
  • Mike


Explaining Computer Hardware

Then, let us take a closer look at the functions and features of each of these devices.


Computer Case

The computer case acts as a place of refuge for the system’s most vital components. For this sort of computer case, metal parts are typically used. The system case, in particular, includes an enclosure for organizing and assembling the numerous internal components, such as the motherboard, CPU, hard disk drive, SMPS power supply unit, and other system components.



The microprocessor is the true brain of a computer and the source of its power. Alternatively, the central processing unit is referred to as it. It is located in a particular place on the motherboard called a socket. Its lever locking mechanism can firmly secure the CPU chip.


Power Supply Unit

Another significant component of the computer case is the power supply unit. The SMPS is one of the most regularly utilized power supply units. The power supply unit provides electrical power to all of the components within the computer case, including the motherboard, hard drive, and any other hardware that requires energy.



In a computer system, the motherboard is the main printed circuit board. The motherboard serves as a connecting and junction board for many of the computer’s most crucial components. To connect input and output devices to the system, the motherboard provides connector chips to connect the system’s microprocessors, main memory RAM, hard drive secondary memory, graphics cards, and controllers.  


Ram Modules

The memory of a computer system is made up of several types of memories organized in a hierarchical structure, each with its size and speed. Each of these memory structures has a different purpose depending on what the software requires. The system’s main memory is RAM, which is a crucial resource maintained by the operating system.


Graphics Card

In a computer, a graphics card is responsible for creating and rendering graphics and projecting information onto a screen. Additionally, graphics cards remove the load from the processor or memory.


Solid State Drive

Solid-state drives can be used in computers as an alternative to traditional hard drives. While they resemble typical hard disk drives in appearance, they include no moving parts. They can access data more rapidly and are more reliable in general because of their decreased power consumption.


Hard Disk Drive

A computer’s hard disk drive is utilized to store data. Almost all files, including the operating system, applications, and the vast majority of file titles, are kept here. Hard drives have several advantages over RAM, including non-volatility, which means they keep their data even when shut off.


Display Screen

An external monitor or a built-in monitor are the two options for displaying information on a computer screen. On a touchscreen display, it responds to pressure. Thus, the user interacts with the device by touching images or words on its display.

Having a basic understanding of your computer’s hardware can be very helpful when you need to upgrade or replace any parts or you want to build a new PC.

We hope that the information in this article regarding computer‌ ‌hardware‌ will help you to understand computer hardware components.


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