Introduction To Computer System: Components and Function

Hardware, as the name implies, refers to the components of a computer system. Computer hardware is consist of electronic, electrical, and mechanical components that are connected to the computer. Moreover, there are two types of components in computer hardware. A computer system is equipped with some hardware components located in its case, and some peripheral devices externally connected.

Here you’ll learn about the major computer components, their functioning, and other key technical details that computer science students should know.


What is Computer Hardware?

Hardware refers to the physical components that make up a computer system. The hardware of a computer is consist of several components such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, hard drive (HDD), graphics cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard, etc. Even though both hardware and software must work together for the system to function, the hardware determines the speed of the computer. On the other hand, the software is a set of instructions that hardware may store and execute.


Types of Computer Hardware 

It might result from an internal or external connection to the computer, depending on where the hardware component of the computer is located. There are two types of A computer’s hardware is separated into two types. They are as follows:

The Internal Hardware Components

Internal hardware components are located and connected inside a computer’s casing. For example:


  • System Case 
  • Motherboard
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Graphics card
  • CD DVD drive
  • Sound card
  • Power Supply Unit
  • Connections cable
  • Ram Modules 
  • Optical drive
  • Solid-state drive
  • Processor heat sink
  • Internal hard disk


The External Hardware Components

External hardware devices are connected to the computer externally. These externally linked components are also known as peripheral hardware devices. An array of cables connects these devices to the system. Here are several examples:


  • Display Monitor 
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  •  Projector 
  • Camera 
  • Scanner
  • External Hard Disk
  • Headphones
  • Speaker
  • Printer
  • Mike


Explaining Computer Hardware

Then, let us take a closer look at the functions and features of each of these devices.

Computer Case

The computer case acts as a place of refuge for the system’s most vital components. For this sort of computer case, metal parts are typically used. The system case, in particular, includes an enclosure for organizing and assembling the numerous internal components, such as the motherboard, CPU, hard disk drive, SMPS power supply unit, and other system components.



The microprocessor is the brain of a computer, and it is the microprocessor that provides the true power. You can also call it the central processing unit. However, a microprocessor chip is located in a specially designed socket on the motherboard. Its lever locking mechanism can firmly secure the CPU chip.


Power Supply Unit

Another significant component of the computer case is the power supply unit. The SMPS is one of the most regularly utilized power supply units. The power supply unit provides electrical power to all components within the computer case, including the motherboard, hard drive, and any other hardware that requires energy.



A computer’s motherboard is a main printed circuit board. The motherboard serves as a connecting and junction board for many of the computer’s most crucial components. 

Furthermore, all input and output devices connected to the system need connector chips, including microprocessors, main memory RAM, secondary memory HDD, graphics cards, and controllers provided by motherboards.  


Ram Modules

The memory of a computer system is made up of several types of memories organized in a hierarchical structure, each with its size and speed. Each of these memory structures has a different purpose depending on what the software requires. Furthermore, the system’s main memory is RAM, which is a crucial resource and the operating system maintains it. 


Graphics Card

A graphics card is responsible for creating and rendering graphics and projecting information onto a screen in a computer. Graphics cards remove the load from the processor or memory.


Solid State Drive

Solid-state drives can be used in computers as an alternative to traditional hard drives. While they resemble typical hard disk drives in appearance, they include no moving parts. As a result, they can access data more rapidly and are generally more reliable because of their decreased power consumption.


Hard Disk Drive

You can utilize a computer’s hard disk drive to store data. You will find almost all files, including the operating system, applications, and most file titles here. Moreover, hard drives have several advantages over RAM, including non-volatility, which means they keep their data even when shut off.


Display Screen

An external monitor or a built-in monitor are the two options for displaying information on a computer screen. On a touchscreen display, it responds to pressure. Consequently, the device can be manipulated by touching the images or words displayed on screen.

Having a basic understanding of your computer’s hardware can be very helpful when you need to upgrade or replace any parts or build a new PC. 

In this article hopefully we have provided information that should assist you in understanding computer hardware components. You can put your further queries here in the comment section. 



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