How Does a Computer Work: Basic Introduction To Computer System

A person who is unfamiliar with a computer system is interested in how it works, how it interprets commands, and what outcomes will display as soon as his eye blinks. 

These types of questions come if we are unfamiliar with the background in computer science. As a result of your curiosity, we are here to answer all of your questions and explain how the computer system works.

What is a Computer System?

As a first step, a new user must understand what a computer system is, an electronic digital machine. As a result, a computer system is an electronic machine that needs the power to operate. The power supply is the lifeline of your computer like water is for your body. 

Data processing, calculation, graphics, word processing, and various other functions are commonly handled by computer systems. Computer system operations can be split into four types in general. Input operation, storage operation, processing operation, and output operation are examples of computer system operations. 


What is Computer Operating System?

An operating system is required for computer systems to function. An operating system is a piece of software loaded into memory by the moment that the computer is powered on. Operating systems are also known as system software, which helps control a computer. 

The user can efficiently operate the computer system by using an operating system. Processes, security, memory, and resource management are among the functions it performs.


What is Computer Hardware and Software?

Physically touchable input and output devices are known as Hardware in computer systems. These include keyboards, monitors, speakers, printers, etc.

In computing, Software refers to the programs contained in the computer and which are only viewed, not touched. These include Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Paint, and all the other Software on the system.

A Computer System’s Major Components


The functioning of a computer system is to combine inputs, storage space, processing, and outputs. Computer systems are mainly composed of these four major components.

Here are some details you should know:


  1. Input: Input refers to information that a user provides to a computer system. Information is provided to the computer system through the computer’s input devices, including keyboard, mouse, microphone, etc. 


  1. Storage Space: Input from the user is stored in the storage space. As a means of storing data, it is called computer memory. Using a hard drive, a computer stores files and documents.

There are two types of memory in the system, internal and external. The RAM inside the body is volatile and is known as internal memory. The data is stored temporarily in the RAM, loaded into RAM when it is ready to be processed, and then moved to storage once processing is complete.

A bit different is external memory, which may be used to store data until you remove it or it crashes permanently.


  1. Processing: The CPU is the component that processes input for a computer. 


As the brain of the computer system, it processes the user’s data. Computer system brains are four times faster than human brains.


  1. Output: The Computer Monitor displays all typed input when users type using a keyboard. The computer screen allows the user to see what information the computer is receiving.

As well as this, a computer system can include multiple types of output devices, such as a projector, a printer, and others.


How Does a Computer System Work

Computer systems are made up of significant components that allow them to function. The steps that a computer system takes to work are described below.

  • Operating System.


  • When a computer starts, it loads all associated programs that come with its operating system (Windows, Linux, Mac, etc.). As soon as the bootstrap loader is running, the system starts booting. As a result, Windows and its services get loaded onto the system.


  • When a computer’s operating system is installed, the installed Hardware becomes active and can communicate with the CPU. Interrupt requests are sent between hardware devices during communication. 


When the current task is about to be done, the interrupt controller instructs the CPU to pause processing new hardware requests until the current job is finished. 

When the CPU receives a new request, it will keep it for a short period. A memory address is stored in the stack for that new request. The task on hold will be processed once the current job is completed. 

If the computer fails the POST test, therefore, an irregular POST will happen. The beeping sound from the system informing us that something went wrong can identify a periodic POST.


  • The power supply of the computer system converts the alternate current, also known as AC, into direct current, called DC, when the system’s power button is pressed. Afterwards, each component of the computer system is provided with adequate power.


  • Then, all components appear to be working, and the power supply is transmitting a signal to the motherboard and CPU using transistors. Because it removes the remaining data from memory during this period, the CPU processes the instruction.


  • The primary components of the computer system are verified during the POST procedure to confirm that they exist and are functioning correctly. If the computer system passes the test, it begins by waking up the 64-byte memory, which contains all hardware-related data. 


When this information is loaded, POST compares it to the system settings. As long as the comparison succeeds, it installs all the necessary drivers and interrupt handlers for the installed Hardware, such as keyboards, hard drives, mice, and much more.


  • The display adaptor is then checked, and if none is found, the display is loaded onto the monitor. The memory address 0000:0472 determines if a Cold boot or reboot must be executed. 


When it reads 1234h, it’s time to reboot, and the remaining POST procedures are ignored. However, if this is not the case, we will proceed to the following post-boot process.


  • The RAM in your computer system will now be tested.


In the final step of the boot process, POST sends signals to test the optical drive and hard drive. In a successful pass of all drives, the POST instructs the computer to begin loading.


This is the process of how a computer system works consequently. We hope that you will develop an understanding of computer systems and how they function.


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