Two types of tools for explaining a program’s operation are the algorithm and flowchart. You will learn about algorithms and flowcharts in this guide, enabling you to understand algorithms and flowcharts in detail.
What is Algorithm
Creating an algorithm is the process of writing down the steps that need to be taken to solve the problem. The term algorithm refers to a procedure that can be used to solve problems. This step is essential to solving a mathematical or computer problem.
Algorithms consist of calculations, reasoning, and data handling. A formulation of an algorithm can be a natural language, pseudocode, and flowcharts, etc.
What is Flowchart
Flowcharts depict an algorithm visually using different symbols, shapes, and arrows to show a process. A program can easily be understood through algorithms. Analyzing different approaches utilizing a flowchart is the main aim of this tool. In a flowchart, several standard symbols are used. As an example
Each of the symbols above represents a part of a flowchart. Boxes and arrows of varying colors and sizes can be used to describe the process in a flowchart. Flowcharts allow you to visualize certain elements and the relationship between them easily.
What is Pseudocode
The terminology pseudocode refers to a combination of basic language and programming language that can be used to describe computer algorithms. This is a step in the process of actually writing the code. It allows programmers to develop their ideas about how an algorithm should be ordered and sequenced without having to adhere to strict coding language. While pseudocode is widely used, there are no set standards for how it should be used.
When creating pseudocode, there are a few rules most frequently followed:
- Arithmetic functions are performed using the usual Fortran symbols (+, -, *, /, **).
- Symbols indicate the amounts being processed.
- Fortran keywords such as print, write, read, etc., are available.
- Branches and loops of instructions should be indicated with indentation.
Here is a sample problem, including a flowchart, pseudocode, and the final Fortran 90 program.
What is the smallest positive integer Number such that the Sum of the values of the Limit is
Sum = 1 + 2 + … + Number is greater than Limit. Sum – what is its value?
1. Enter Limit
2. Set Number = 0.
3. Set Sum = 0.
4. Repeat the following:
a. If Sum > Limit, terminate the repetition, otherwise.
b. Increment Number by one.
c. Add Number to Sum and set equal to Sum.
5. Print Number and Sum.
How to make an Algorithm Flowchart
Now that we understand the definitions of algorithm and flowchart. So how can we use a flowchart to represent an algorithm? The first step is to find an algorithm diagramming tool that makes creating algorithms flowcharts easy.
Flowcharts help describe the business, educational, personal, and algorithm-related processes. Algorithms are a vital component of mathematics and computer programs. To visualize the steps of a program, flowcharts are frequently used as a planning tool. The following are some examples of algorithms and flowcharts:
First Example: Print 1 through 20
- Step 1: Initialize X as 0,
- Step 2: Increment X by 1,
- Step 3: Print X,
- Step 4: If X is less than 20, then go back to step 2.
Second Example: Convert Temperature from Fahrenheit (℉) to Celsius (℃)
- Step 1: Read temperature in Fahrenheit,
- Step 2: Calculate temperature with formula C=5/9*(F-32),
- Step 3: Print C.
Third Example: Determine Whether A Student Passed the Exam or Not.
- Step 1: Input grades of 4 courses M1, M2, M3, and M4,
- Step 2: Calculate the average grade with the formula “Grade=(M1+M2+M3+M4)/4”
- Step 3: If the average grade is less than 60, print “FAIL,” else print “PASS.”
Advantages of Flowchart
Programmers and program designers use algorithms and flowcharts to solve problems, as flowchart offers a wide range of advantages. Below are some of the benefits of flowcharts:
- In providing the pictorial representation of the steps, the logic and subsequent steps become more precise.
- Since each step is easily understood through pictures, it is a more efficient and straightforward way of representing data.
- A flowchart also aids in coding efficiently since it gives instructions about what to do when to do it and where to do them. This makes the work easier.
- In addition, flowcharts help find errors in programs.
- As a final point, a flow chart is also helpful when preparing a document.
As a result of the foregoing, a flowchart can be based on the visual representation of an algorithm. As a result, a flowchart can be used to represent and analyze an algorithm. Algorithms describe how to reach a solution step by step, whereas flow charts explain how to connect each step. The stages of an algorithm are primarily expressed in words, but the process in a flowchart can be represented using flowchart symbols.